Aromatics bound in cheesecloth
I was taught that the aromatics bound in the cheese cloth is called a Sachet bag. And the reason you put it in the bag is so you can remove it halfway through the cooking time
Julienne, chiffonade, emince...? Fancy names. Simple concepts. Find clarity here.
The bouquet garni (or Sachet) is a bundle of herbs usually tied together with string (or cheesecloth) and mainly used to add seasonings to stocks.
Here's a Drill-down for reference: http://rouxbe.com/drilldowns/304 Jeremy you are right.
Main thing to understand is that this is like making tea. You don't really want to let your herbs steep too long. We recommend adding the bouquet garni or sachet during the final 30 minutes of cooking. This way you don't have to tie it because it can be strained out with the bones and mirepoix.
Vegetarian stock will be covered in a future lesson, however, the same stock-making essentials apply from Lesson 1 "How to Make Stock". To extract more flavor from the mirepoix vegetables, you can sweat them over low heat in a bit of oil to soften. You can even roast/caramelize the vegetables if you want to make dark stock.
Stay away from vegetables like turnips, peppers and cabbage, as they will impart a very distinct flavor. Add a good amount of cold water to cover (about 1 part veg to 1 part water), simmer and continue with the same stock-making process. Vegetable stock takes less time to cook (about 45 mins to 1 hour).
One other note: ingredients such as mushrooms, corn on the cob or lentils added to a vegetable stock can provide the liquid with some body and protein.
That's brilliant Kimberly, I was really wanting to learn so I could make some things for my one year old, the store bought has so much salt in it! That is a great idea about the lenitls as well, I never would have thought of that. I really appreciate your getting back to me on this.
Having set about making my stock, I have a couple of questins - it looks in the video the carrots are peeled, is that necessary?
Also, my mother used to use vegetable whichs were, shall I say, past their prime in her stocks to use them up (she hated waste). Is this a bad idea?
When making stock, it is best to use fresh vegetables. Old vegetables can lend bitter flavors to stock, so if you're going to go through all of the effort, we recommend using fresh ingredients. Make sure your vegetables are washed and peeling them is up to you. Some chefs do - some don't. Try it both ways to see if you notice any difference in color and flavor.
If you know you're not going to get around to using a particular vegetable, start a mirepoix collection bag. Cut the vegetable into the appropriate mirepoix size and freeze before it passes its prime. When it comes to making stock, you'll have extra vegetables on hand.
To my mind, if you are going to add pepper combined with your herbs. .. and (In this case to stock}. a few whole peppercorns won't make a big difference}.
What I do is take a few peppercorns and instead of adding them whole, I get out my little hammer in my drawer and lay out a bunch of whole pepper corns on my work table and smash (tap) them with my handy little hammer. Then I add the cracked peppercorns to the stock.
I dunno, I just think that if you are going to add pepper, why not really add pepper. And if you crack the pepper corns first, this will do it
Hi Tara... keep in mind, you are making a base stock that should have great chicken and vegetable flavoring (from the mirepoix). The dominate flavor though should be chicken (unless making beef or veal of course).
Because this is a base that will be used to make many different sauces, soups and dishes, keep the seasoning to a minimum. You can always add more garlic, salt, pepper, thyme, etc. later but you might not want it too 'peppery' for some dishes.
Lastly, as taught in this lesson, there are no absolutes. If you love pepper, double or triple it - no problem.
I noticed that leeks were used in the white stock recipe. Do they impart a better flavour than regular yellow cooking onions? I am a fan of leeks as I grow them and would choose them as my onion of choice for a stock. Would they be better in a lighter stocks like chicken?
Leeks simply add another layer of flavor to stocks. They are typically used in all stocks. The one thing to keep in mind though, is to only use the white and light green part of the leeks when making a white stock that you'd like to be light in color. The green part will leak (no pun intended lol), some of their green color into the stock For most uses, this is really okay as it is very minimal.
Remember, with stocks, don't worry about being too strict on the amounts of ingredients. In fact, don't even worry about measuring things. You are flavoring water....
I also find white onions to be a bit more milder in flavor than most leeks for the record.
I just made the basic white chicken stock tonight. It was just as easy as it looked. I just have one question though... should I de-fat the white stocks as is shown in the dark stock-making video? Or would de-fatting it make it too bland since the white stock flavour is quite mild?
In both cases (white and dark) you will want to de-fat the stock. You can do it when it is hot by skimming the surface, or you can cool it over night and remove the fat when it is solid (much easier I think). Just make sure you cool it properly in an ice bath in the sink before refrigerating.
Congratulations! What are you going to make with it?
Thanks Joe. I think I did a decent job of skimming fat off during the simmering because this morning (I made the stock last night) there was very little to get rid of. As far as what I am going to make with it, I don't know yet. I was just trying to learn the basics so I made the stock. But I think I will try the couscous recipes. Is there a difference in the actual grains of couscous making one Morroccan and one Mediterranean? I have some couscous in my pantry, but it doesn't say where from. Would it matter too much in a recipe?
This is a drilldown on the differences when it comes to couscous - http://rouxbe.com/drilldowns/62
This is a recipe http://rouxbe.com/recipes/50/preview - small grains of couscous are used, great for soaking up sauces.
This is also a recipe http://rouxbe.com/recipes/62/preview - just a bit bigger grains, great texture and one of my favorites.
Both use chicken stock, but which one you use is up to you and what you are cooking. Hope this helps! dawn
I have a stupid question. Are the chicken bones for stock supposed to be raw? I've always boiled my left over turkey bones, for example (with not great results. I still have to add oxo so it doesn't taste like dishwater.)
If they are supposed to be raw, where do you get them? I've never seen chicken necks and backs on the shelf at the supermarket.
Generally you are supposed to use raw bones when making stock. Cooked bones will still work, but raw will give you the most flavor.
I buy raw bones at my local butcher and many other places around town. Really any store that does there own butchering will likely sell the bones. I think if you phoned around you might be surprised how many places sell raw bones.
If you like you could check out the stock making essentials course on Rouxbe http://rouxbe.com/school/sections/3/objectives
We walk your through how to make stock, from start to finish. We also give you the "whys" to making stock, like why fresh bones are so important etc.
Good luck, hope this helps.
Gelatin in a stock is fantastic. Gelatin adds flavor and texture to your stews, soups and sauces. The gelatin in your stock is what will give your sauces that sexy texture (meaning that "mouth-feel" as the sauce slides over your tongue).
So Carol, yes is the answer to your question. Your gelatinous stock, means that you made a great stock! Good Job!!
I am a cook onboard a boat and the pressure cooker is my best friend. Are there any good hints on how to best use a pressure cooker to make stock-realising that the skimming and defatting bit will have to come at the end. The savings in fuel, time and the safety factor mean that I really have no other option but a pressure cooker when we are out in the ogin.
Hi Karen. Using a pressure cooker is certainly better than nothing. Few things to think about.
Using a pressure cooker will result in a cloudy stock where the fat emulsifies into the stock. But aside from not being clear, the flavor should be just good. You could make it a day before, cool it properly, then refrigerate it so you can remove most of the fat.
Couple of other suggestions:
1) Make a big batch of stock before departing. Reduce and freeze in small batches. This way you'll have what you need when you need it.
2) You could buy low sodium stocks in tetra paks (like swansons). Must be low sodium. It's not as good as home made stock for sure, but it's better than water. You can also doctor up these stocks by browning additional bones and vegetables and then cooking (see short stock lesson).